Dust separators with filter bags
Dust separators with bags use mechanical means to ensure separation. Settling takes place due to gravity. A bag is placed in the dust chamber. In contrast to dust separation cyclones where particles are separated from the tangential influx of air by centrifugal forces, here the dusty air flows through at a speed of 0.4-0.8 m/s. Guide blades and louvers are installed to increase efficiency.
The dust-laden gases enter the contaminated gas section of the filter through ducts. Here they collide with an impact plate to separate out the larger particles. Now containing only fine dust, the gas enters the dust chamber and is evenly distributed along the tubes. The dust is on the outside of the tubes attached to the supporting frames. Due to the suction mode, the tube is pulled onto the frame and the dust is deposited on its outer surface. Thus cleaned, the gas heads through the tubes into the clean gas chamber and then through the ducts to the fan. The tubes are cleaned automatically by short bursts of clean air. An electronic control mechanism uses electromagnetic valves to operate the membrane valves for impulses lasting 0.1-1.5 seconds in accordance with the required settings. During each impulse, air at a pressure of 5-7 bars flows through a distributor tube to the attached injector and then into the tube. The bag, which has thus far been pressed against the frame in a star shape, is suddenly filled with air and under inertia the dust particles fall into the collection unit. This is one of the most widespread methods of cleaning the tubes, but it is not the only way. The following are some other solutions:
♦ Lateral swinging movements
Filter flow resistivity
The two main components of pressure drop in filtration equipment are the clean filter material and the resistance of the deposited dust layer. The flow resistivity of lower density filters is less than that of higher density filters; since the flow rate generally remains in the laminar range, the resistance depends on the amount of gas and its value is directly proportional to filtration speed.
Factors determining the joint resistance of the separated dust layer and the filter:
♦ Surface load of filter layer
The pressure drop resulting from the resistance is determinative in terms of economical operation.
The movement of particles in a gravitational field
Two opposing forces affect the particles: gravity and drag force. The flow resistivity around the particles consists of dynamic resistance stemming from changes in the speed of the medium and friction resistance due to viscosity. The sink rate depends on the flow properties of the medium (Reynolds number), which is calculated differently in the laminar (Re<0.1), transitional (0.1<Re<1,000), and turbulent (1,000<Re) ranges.
♦ laminar (Re<0.1): friction is definitive, with dynamic resistance negligible
The motions of particles smaller than 0.1 μm are chaotic (Brownian) and these remain suspended in the air.
♦ Suitable for separating dry dusts during continuous operation
♦ Not suitable for separating particles smaller than 5 μm
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